Algeria and the era of Islamic states

It was not long after the establishment of Islam in the countries of the Maghreb until the eastern sectarian currents began to reach it, and one of the results of that was the establishment of several independent states in the countries of the Middle Maghreb (Algeria), some of which were established on Algerian soil and with Algerian arms, and others embraced by the country’s population after its influence expanded. And the cities of Tehert, Tlemcen, Ashir, Bejaia, and others are only evidence of the civilizational past of these countries.

Almoravid dynasty in Algeria

The Almoravid state arose in the Chinguetti desert during a period of rupture and dissolution in the Islamic Maghreb, allowing them to conquer Sijilmasa in 447 AH/1055 AD and Aghmat and Tadla in 449 AH/1057 AD. Youssef bin Tashfin established Marrakesh as the capital of the Almoravid empire in the year 454 AH / 1062 AD, and he captured Fez in the year 462 AH / 1070 AD. In the year 472 AH/1079 AD, the Almoravid army marched from Marrakech to western Algeria, led by Mouzdali bin Baklan al-Lamtouni, with around 20,000 men arriving in Ahwaz, Tlemcen. But he couldn't keep it under control, and in the year 475 AH/1082 AD, the Almoravid Prince Yusuf bin Tashfin came out and wanted to annex Algeria to his realm, allowing him to take Tlemcen. From there, he traveled to Oran, Tness, the mountains of Alonchris and Chlef, and defeated the kingdoms of Zenat, before entering Mitja and reaching the Benu Mazghna islands, where he erected the Great Mosque. Western Algeria became an Almoravid state for 76 years, until the Almoravid Dynasty fell under the Almohad Dynasty.

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Zayyanid dynasty

Benou Abdeloued are a branch of the Berber Zenata tribe. Due to the Hilali invasion, they relocated to the western area of Algeria and stayed in the grazing grounds south of Oran district for a century, leading a Bedouin lifestyle. During this time, they swore allegiance to the monotheists and rendered invaluable assistance in safeguarding these lands from their foes. The Almohads, on the other hand, let them settle in the territory of Oran and Tlemcen. At the end of their days, they entrusted them with Tlemcen, so they lived in it and in its neighboring areas, developed it, and later became their property. The Benou Abdeloued, newcomers to the region, had mingled with the Benou Yafran clan and become their overlords. They grew strong with the Almohads' assistance and therefore established a high reputation in this regard. Their kings went away from the Almohads until bin Zayan took over in the year 633 AH / 1236 AD, when he became governor of Ighmarasen.

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Rustamid dynasty (Algeria)

The Rustamid Dynasty was established at the hands of Abderrahman ibn Rostom after having fled Kairouan following the entry of the Abbasid soldiers into the Maghreb. Followed by the killing of Samh ibn al-A’ala by the Abbasid forces, Ibn Rustam headed to the Middle Maghreb. Following his arrival, a group of scholars from all states of the Maghreb came to him from Tripoli and Nafusa Mountains. Abderrahman ibn Rostom was then pledged allegiance to (Imamate) and took Tihret as the capital of his new dynasty. After his death, his son Abdelwahab, continued to rule in his dynasty until the fall of the state at the hands of the Fatimid dynasty. The influence of the Rustumid dynasty extended over several parts of the central Maghreb, from Tlemcen in the west to Tripoli and the Nafusa Mountains in the east, and the Jerid region, and from the northwest of the Mediterranean Sea to the oases of southern Algeria. Trade flourished during the rule of the Rustumid Dynasty, and markets were established in various cities and were popular with various goods within the state or from other countries. After the establishment of the Fatimid dynasty in Africa, the Fatimid armies seized Tihert. The last ruler of the Rustumid Dynasty, Yakdan Ben Mohamed, was impeached in 296 AH / 909 AD, so the rest of them fled to Ouargla and then to the M’zab Valley in Ghardaia, where they settled.

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Hafsid Dynasty

The fall of the Almohad dynasty in the battle of Al Akab, 609 AH / 1212 AD by King of Castile Alfonso VI in Andalusia caused chaos in the state's affairs and made way to the emergence of various uprisings. Abou Zakaria Yahya al-Hafsi took advantage of the Almohad state's weakness, the departure of their successors, and the fragmentation of their power, and declared his independence in the year 627 AH / 1229 AD, establishing Tunis as the capital of his state. The Hafsid dynasty's borders encompassed Tripoli, Tunisian Diars, and the province of Constantine, and loyalty was professed to him in Andalusia. The rule continued with Banou Hafs. The last of whom was Mohammad ibn al-Hassan, during whose reign the Hafsid empire fell to the Ottomans in the year 981 AH / 1573 AD, after ruling in Africa for about 354 years, including 315 years in the Algerian east.

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Ubayadids Dynasty

The Maghreb was governed by three distinct emirates in the 3rd century AH, which brought together warring tribes into political entities that alleviated their disputes. As a result, people dedicate their time to economic and scientific endeavors. Famine and epidemics spread during the second part of the 2nd century. The Maghreb had become aware of the Shi'a imams in the East, as well as the political weakness that came upon it, as a consequence of its partition into mini-Dynastys. In addition to the degree of its economic vulnerability, as a result of the famines and plagues that have befallen it. Ubayd Allah Al-Mahdi faced pressure and persecution from the Abbasids, so he sought to hide in Maghreb nations far from the Abbasid Caliphate, and he dispatched his preacher, Aba Abdullah Al-Hussein bin Ahmed, to speak for his cause. Ubayd Allah Al Mahdi had enough religious advocacy and political acumen that qualified him to establish the Ubayadis Dynasty among the arms of the Kutama tribe, which had a bond with the war position of its men and the weakness of the last Aghlabid princes Ziyadah Allah, who was victorious over him in the battle of Arbes in the year 296 AH / 909 AD.

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Zirid dynasty

In the year 335 AH / 946 AD, Abu Yazid al-Kharji, also known as the Man on the Donkey, revolted against the Fatimid Shiite government (the Ubayyadids). So Al-Mansur Al-Fatimi went to Maqra and begged Ziri bin Munad Al-Sinhaji to assist him in putting an end to this outsider's movement. And after the revolt was over, Al-Mansur Al-Fatimi honored Ziri bin Mounad and appointed him at the head of Tihert, Baghaya, Masila, the Zab and Hodna. Ziri bin Manad established Asher as the capital of his dynasty and issued a currency in his honour. Belkin bin Ziri was appointed Emir of the Islamic Maghreb following the expulsion of the Fatimids from the Maghreb to Egypt in 361 AH / 972 AD. The Zenata tribe revolted against Badis ibn Al-Mansur during his rule in 386 AH / 996 AD. He commanded his uncle Hammad to put an end to the revolt, and in exchange, he requested that the Middle Maghreb be given to him. Hammad was able to put down the Zenata tribe's insurrection in 395AH/1005AD. As a result, the Zirid state was divided into two parts: the eastern portion, which included the Lower Maghreb and its capital, Kairouan, and the western part, which included the Central Maghreb and its capital, the Kâala, followed by Bejaia. He professed his allegiance to the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad and the Sunni religion during the reign of Al-Moua’iz bin Badis. He denounced the Fatimid king of Egypt and the Ismaili Shiite faith. This resulted in the arrival of Crescent Arabs in the Maghreb. Following then, the Zirid kingdom collapsed and fell victim to Norman domination. Until Abdelmoumen ben Ali was able to release the shores of the Zirid realm from this occupation and join it to his lands in the year 555 AH / 1160 AD, and the control of the Benou Ziri was abolished from the Maghreb countries.

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Almohad dynasty (Algeria)

The vow of obedience to Muhammad bin Abdullah Tumart was made under a carob tree in the year 515 AH / 1121 AD, and the preachers proclaimed the vow and warned them of the obstacles they would face. Despite this, they remained patient. As a result, he called them the Almohads and fought multiple battles against the Almoravid dynasty before being defeated at the Battle of the Lake in the year 524 AH / 1130 AD during the siege of the Almoravid capital, Marrakesh. The Almohads then proceeded to the plain of Mendess in the heart of Zenata's territory and commenced their allegiance. Maymoune bin Hamdoun escaped to Mitja and wrote with devotion and allegiance to Abd al-Mu'min from there. The Almohads entered Tlemcen on Ramadan 29, 539 AH / March 26, 1145 AD, then returned to Oran and were able to enter it on the morning of Eid al-Fitr, 539 AH / March 26th, 1145 AD. They then took over the city of Miliana in the year 544 AH / 1149 AD, and Abd al-Mu'min stormed Bejaia, the capital of the Hammadids, in the month of Dhu al-Kadah in the year 547 AH / February 1152 AD. In the year 551 AH / 1156 AD, the Almohads were able to reach Pune (Annaba), and therefore conquer the whole Algerian territory.

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Almoravid dynasty in Algeria

The Almoravid state arose in the Chinguetti desert during a period of rupture and dissolution in the Islamic Maghreb, allowing them to conquer Sijilmasa in 447 AH/1055 AD and Aghmat and Tadla in 449 AH/1057 AD. Youssef bin Tashfin established Marrakesh as the capital of the Almoravid empire in the year 454 AH / 1062 AD, and he captured Fez in the year 462 AH / 1070 AD. In the year 472 AH/1079 AD, the Almoravid army marched from Marrakech to western Algeria, led by Mouzdali bin Baklan al-Lamtouni, with around 20,000 men arriving in Ahwaz, Tlemcen. But he couldn't keep it under control, and in the year 475 AH/1082 AD, the Almoravid Prince Yusuf bin Tashfin came out and wanted to annex Algeria to his realm, allowing him to take Tlemcen. From there, he traveled to Oran, Tness, the mountains of Alonchris and Chlef, and defeated the kingdoms of Zenat, before entering Mitja and reaching the Benu Mazghna islands, where he erected the Great Mosque. Western Algeria became an Almoravid state for 76 years, until the Almoravid Dynasty fell under the Almohad Dynasty.

Zayyanid dynasty

Benou Abdeloued are a branch of the Berber Zenata tribe. Due to the Hilali invasion, they relocated to the western area of Algeria and stayed in the grazing grounds south of Oran district for a century, leading a Bedouin lifestyle. During this time, they swore allegiance to the monotheists and rendered invaluable assistance in safeguarding these lands from their foes. The Almohads, on the other hand, let them settle in the territory of Oran and Tlemcen. At the end of their days, they entrusted them with Tlemcen, so they lived in it and in its neighboring areas, developed it, and later became their property. The Benou Abdeloued, newcomers to the region, had mingled with the Benou Yafran clan and become their overlords. They grew strong with the Almohads' assistance and therefore established a high reputation in this regard. Their kings went away from the Almohads until bin Zayan took over in the year 633 AH / 1236 AD, when he became governor of Ighmarasen.

Rustamid dynasty (Algeria)

The Rustamid Dynasty was established at the hands of Abderrahman ibn Rostom after having fled Kairouan following the entry of the Abbasid soldiers into the Maghreb. Followed by the killing of Samh ibn al-A’ala by the Abbasid forces, Ibn Rustam headed to the Middle Maghreb. Following his arrival, a group of scholars from all states of the Maghreb came to him from Tripoli and Nafusa Mountains. Abderrahman ibn Rostom was then pledged allegiance to (Imamate) and took Tihret as the capital of his new dynasty. After his death, his son Abdelwahab, continued to rule in his dynasty until the fall of the state at the hands of the Fatimid dynasty. The influence of the Rustumid dynasty extended over several parts of the central Maghreb, from Tlemcen in the west to Tripoli and the Nafusa Mountains in the east, and the Jerid region, and from the northwest of the Mediterranean Sea to the oases of southern Algeria. Trade flourished during the rule of the Rustumid Dynasty, and markets were established in various cities and were popular with various goods within the state or from other countries. After the establishment of the Fatimid dynasty in Africa, the Fatimid armies seized Tihert. The last ruler of the Rustumid Dynasty, Yakdan Ben Mohamed, was impeached in 296 AH / 909 AD, so the rest of them fled to Ouargla and then to the M’zab Valley in Ghardaia, where they settled.

Hafsid Dynasty

The fall of the Almohad dynasty in the battle of Al Akab, 609 AH / 1212 AD by King of Castile Alfonso VI in Andalusia caused chaos in the state's affairs and made way to the emergence of various uprisings. Abou Zakaria Yahya al-Hafsi took advantage of the Almohad state's weakness, the departure of their successors, and the fragmentation of their power, and declared his independence in the year 627 AH / 1229 AD, establishing Tunis as the capital of his state. The Hafsid dynasty's borders encompassed Tripoli, Tunisian Diars, and the province of Constantine, and loyalty was professed to him in Andalusia. The rule continued with Banou Hafs. The last of whom was Mohammad ibn al-Hassan, during whose reign the Hafsid empire fell to the Ottomans in the year 981 AH / 1573 AD, after ruling in Africa for about 354 years, including 315 years in the Algerian east.

Ubayadids Dynasty

The Maghreb was governed by three distinct emirates in the 3rd century AH, which brought together warring tribes into political entities that alleviated their disputes. As a result, people dedicate their time to economic and scientific endeavors. Famine and epidemics spread during the second part of the 2nd century. The Maghreb had become aware of the Shi'a imams in the East, as well as the political weakness that came upon it, as a consequence of its partition into mini-Dynastys. In addition to the degree of its economic vulnerability, as a result of the famines and plagues that have befallen it. Ubayd Allah Al-Mahdi faced pressure and persecution from the Abbasids, so he sought to hide in Maghreb nations far from the Abbasid Caliphate, and he dispatched his preacher, Aba Abdullah Al-Hussein bin Ahmed, to speak for his cause. Ubayd Allah Al Mahdi had enough religious advocacy and political acumen that qualified him to establish the Ubayadis Dynasty among the arms of the Kutama tribe, which had a bond with the war position of its men and the weakness of the last Aghlabid princes Ziyadah Allah, who was victorious over him in the battle of Arbes in the year 296 AH / 909 AD.

Zirid dynasty

In the year 335 AH / 946 AD, Abu Yazid al-Kharji, also known as the Man on the Donkey, revolted against the Fatimid Shiite government (the Ubayyadids). So Al-Mansur Al-Fatimi went to Maqra and begged Ziri bin Munad Al-Sinhaji to assist him in putting an end to this outsider's movement. And after the revolt was over, Al-Mansur Al-Fatimi honored Ziri bin Mounad and appointed him at the head of Tihert, Baghaya, Masila, the Zab and Hodna. Ziri bin Manad established Asher as the capital of his dynasty and issued a currency in his honour. Belkin bin Ziri was appointed Emir of the Islamic Maghreb following the expulsion of the Fatimids from the Maghreb to Egypt in 361 AH / 972 AD. The Zenata tribe revolted against Badis ibn Al-Mansur during his rule in 386 AH / 996 AD. He commanded his uncle Hammad to put an end to the revolt, and in exchange, he requested that the Middle Maghreb be given to him. Hammad was able to put down the Zenata tribe's insurrection in 395AH/1005AD. As a result, the Zirid state was divided into two parts: the eastern portion, which included the Lower Maghreb and its capital, Kairouan, and the western part, which included the Central Maghreb and its capital, the Kâala, followed by Bejaia. He professed his allegiance to the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad and the Sunni religion during the reign of Al-Moua’iz bin Badis. He denounced the Fatimid king of Egypt and the Ismaili Shiite faith. This resulted in the arrival of Crescent Arabs in the Maghreb. Following then, the Zirid kingdom collapsed and fell victim to Norman domination. Until Abdelmoumen ben Ali was able to release the shores of the Zirid realm from this occupation and join it to his lands in the year 555 AH / 1160 AD, and the control of the Benou Ziri was abolished from the Maghreb countries.

Almohad dynasty (Algeria)

The vow of obedience to Muhammad bin Abdullah Tumart was made under a carob tree in the year 515 AH / 1121 AD, and the preachers proclaimed the vow and warned them of the obstacles they would face. Despite this, they remained patient. As a result, he called them the Almohads and fought multiple battles against the Almoravid dynasty before being defeated at the Battle of the Lake in the year 524 AH / 1130 AD during the siege of the Almoravid capital, Marrakesh. The Almohads then proceeded to the plain of Mendess in the heart of Zenata's territory and commenced their allegiance. Maymoune bin Hamdoun escaped to Mitja and wrote with devotion and allegiance to Abd al-Mu'min from there. The Almohads entered Tlemcen on Ramadan 29, 539 AH / March 26, 1145 AD, then returned to Oran and were able to enter it on the morning of Eid al-Fitr, 539 AH / March 26th, 1145 AD. They then took over the city of Miliana in the year 544 AH / 1149 AD, and Abd al-Mu'min stormed Bejaia, the capital of the Hammadids, in the month of Dhu al-Kadah in the year 547 AH / February 1152 AD. In the year 551 AH / 1156 AD, the Almohads were able to reach Pune (Annaba), and therefore conquer the whole Algerian territory.