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Almoravid dynasty in Algeria

Political Aspect:

 The Almoravid dynasty belongs to the Lamtona tribe, one of the Sanhaja tribes' in the south, also known as the “Veiled State”, because its inhabitants used the veil as a slogan to separate themselves from others. This tribe's settlement was in the depths of the desert, and after that emerged Abdullah bin Yassin al-Jazuli, who was brought by Prince Yahya bin Ibrahim al-Jadali and formed his bond in the Niger Valley - Senegal.  A number of them joined him and were known as the Almoravids, and it was under their control that this state was created in the year 434 AH/1042 AD. The Almoravids marched to Da’raa in 447 AH / 1055 AD, and the fight concluded with the loss of the Mughrawa tribe, following which the Almoravids entered Sijilmasa, and in 448 AH / 1056 AD, Prince Yahya bin Omar Al-Lamtouni died and was succeeded by his brother Abu Bakr bin Omar. The Almoravids marched towards the Sous nation, and Youssef bin Tashfin was appointed to command the Almoravid army, who were able to take the country of Jazoula, the town of Massa, and Taroudant, the Sous country's capital. Then they crossed the Darn Mountains, conquered Warda, Shafshawa, and Nafis, and were able to enter Aghmat in 449 AH / 1057 AD. The Kingdom of Barghawata was destroyed, and Youssef Ibn Tashfin was able to lead his army to the north and build the region of Marrakesh in the year 454 AH / 1062 AD. He then declared it the capital of his new empire, and he was able to dominate the city of Fez in the year 462 AH/1069 AD, and Malwya and Tangiers from the year 465 AH/1072 AD until the year 470 AH/1077 AD.

   Youssef bin Tashfin then decided to go to Algeria to conquer it, so the Almoravid army, headed by Muzdali bin Baklan Al-Lamtouni, advanced with around 20,000 men towards Tlemcen, yet he was unable to seize and control it. Then, in the year 474 AH/1081 AD, Yusuf bin Tashfin went himself and conquered various locations, allowing him to infiltrate Tlemcen and destroy its princes from Banu Khazar or Ifrane. He established his renowned city, Takrart, Tlemcen today, and used it as a base for his camp, from which he marched to Oran, Tenes, the Alonchris and Chlef mountains, and defeated the Zenat kingdoms. He invaded Mitja Mugla till he reached the walls of Algiers, Bani Mazghna, and returned to Marrakesh in 475 AH / 1082 AD, and the western half of Algeria became an Almoravid state.

  The Almoravid kingdom based its theology on Imam Malik's Sunni doctrine, and the Almoravid emir was known as the emir of the Muslims, and he professed his loyalty to the Abbasid caliphate in Baghdad.

  Mohamed bin Tinammar, appointed to Tlemcen by Yusuf bin Tashfin in 475 AH/1082 AD, was one of Algeria's most notable kings during the Almoravid dynasty. After him, his brother, Tashfin bin Tinammar, took control and invaded the Algerian city of Banu Mazghna after heavy warfare. He was able to enter Asher, but a conflict between him and the rulers of Bani Hammad led to his departure from his post in the year 498 AH / 1103 AD. Following him, Muzdali, the commander, took charge, followed by Muhammad, known as Al-Shiyur, who stayed with it until it came into the hands of the Almohads.

   The Almoravids ruled the Algerian West until the creation of the Almohad state in the furthest portion of the nation of Sous, from the distant Maghreb. After seizing control of various areas in the Far Maghreb, they chose to proceed west into Algeria. And they were able to enter Tlemcen on the 29th of Ramadan 539 AH / 26 March 1145 AD, ending the Almoravids' 67-year hegemony in the Algerian west.  

Economic Life:

   The Almoravids were engaged in agriculture, and their knowledge of the terrain aided them in the development of new fruits, cereals, and legumes. Agriculture grew as a result of the efforts of its scientists, and new methods for treating plant illnesses and eliminating pests were discovered. Tlemcen was well-known for its numerous canals that branched out from the valley to irrigate farms and orchards. Tlemcen's irrigation system was methodically managed, as farmers worked together to water their agricultural grounds. Tlemcen was known for its meadows and the quality of its horses, who were known as Rashidiya horses. Military businesses thrived, notably the camel saddlery and saddlery and bridle industries, both of which were famed in the city of Nol, now known as Tindouf. Tlemcen was a commercial center and one of the trade routes, with one of its branches leading to Fez, then to Sijilmasa and crossing through Oudgasht to reach Western Sudan. Another route leads from Tlemcen to Oujda and then to Fez, while another leads west from Meknesah to Aghmat and then to Oudgasht in western Sudan. Tlemcen's role in commodity marketing enabled it to control the commerce of the Far Maghreb from Sudan to Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, and the Islamic East. Tenes' port has helped to revitalise foreign commerce by serving as a berth for ships transporting agricultural products like as wheat, barley, and other grains to all horizons. Hanin's port was vital for the export of goods from Tlemcen and the neighboring districts.

Scientific Life: